Weimar Republic

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German Reich
Deutsches Reich
1919–1933
Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen
(English: "Song of the Germans")
Location of the Weimar Republic in Europe.
Location of the Weimar Republic in Europe.
German states during the Weimar Republic period.
German states during the Weimar Republic period.
Caipital Berlin
Common leids German
Govrenment semi-presidential representative
federal republic (1919–30)
De facto authoritarian state
bi emergency decree (1930–33)
Preses  
• 1919–1925
Friedrich Ebert
• 1925–1933
Paul von Hindenburg
Chancellor  
• 1919 (first)
Philipp Scheidemann
• 1933 (last)
Adolf Hitler
Legislatur Reichstag
• State Cooncil
Reichsrat
Historical era Interwar period
• Established
11 August 1919
• Govrenment bi decree begins
29 Mairch 1930[1]
• Hitler appyntit Chancellor
30 Januar 1933
27 Februar 1933
23 Mairch 1933
Aurie
1925[2] 468,787 km2 (181,000 sq mi)
Population
• 1925[2]
62411000
Currency
ISO 3166 code DE
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
German Empire
Nazi Germany
The day pairt o
The coat o airms shawn abuin is the version used efter 1928, which replaced that shawn in the "Banner an coat o airms" section.[3]

The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] ( listen)) is an unoffeecial, historical designation for the German state as it exeestit atween 1919 an 1933. The name derives frae the ceety o Weimar, whaur its constitutional assemmly first teuk place. The offeecial name o the state remeened Deutsches Reich, unchynged syne 1871.

A naitional assemmly wis convened in Weimar, whaur a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich wis written an adoptit on 11 August 1919. In its fowerteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, includin hyperinflation, poleetical extremism (wi paramilitaries – baith left- an richt-weeng) as well as contentious relationships wi the veectors o the First Warld War. The fowk o Germany fautit the Weimar Republic raither nor thair wartime leaders for the kintra's defeat an for the humiliatin terms o the Treaty o Versailles. Weimar Germany fulfilled maist o the requirements o the Treaty o Versailles awtho it niver completely met its disairmament requirements an eventually peyed anly a smaw portion o the war reparations (bi twice restructurin its det throu the Dawes Plan an the Young Plan).[4] Unner the Locarno Treaties, Germany acceptit the wastren mairches o the republic, but conteena'd tae dispute the eastren mairches.

Frae 1930 onwart Preses Hindenburg uised emergency pouers tae back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen an General Kurt von Schleicher. The Great Depression, exacerbatit bu Brüning's policy o deflation, led tae a surge in unemployment.[5] In 1933, Hindenburg appyntit Adolf Hitler as Chancellor wi the Nazi Pairty bein pairt o a coaleetion govrenment. The Nazis held twa oot o the remeening ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor wis intendit tae be the "éminence grise" that wad keep Hitler unner control, uisin his close personal connection tae Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree an the Enabling Act o 1933 haed brocht aboot a state o emergency: it wiped oot constitutional govrenance an ceevil leeberties. Hitler's seizur o pouer (Machtergreifung) wis permissive o govrenment bi decree withoot legislative pairteecipation. Thir events brocht the republic tae an end—as democracy collapsed, the foondin o a single-party state begoud the Nazi era.

References

  1. Thomas Adam, Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-633-7, p. 185
  2. "Das Deutsche Reich im Überblick". Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik. Retrieved 26 April 2007. 
  3. Cf. Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden: 21 vols., completely revis. ed., Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 151928–1935, vol. 4 (1929): "Vierter Band Chi–Dob", article: 'Deutsches Reich', pp. 611–704, here pp. 648 and 651. No ISBN.
  4. Marks, Sally, The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933, St. Martin's, NY, 1976, pp.96–105.
  5. Büttner, Ursula Weimar: die überforderte Republik, Klett-Cotta, 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-94308-5, p. 424

Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400